Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Instant Solutions for Essay Samples for Business Majors in Step by Step Format Keep in mind there are thousands of others students applying to your preferred university, and you will need to distinguish yourself. They reported they could not begin their research process until they had an idea of what they were going to write about. The review is going to teach you whatever you will need to understand and then you are able to place your purchase confidently. It takes only 5 minutes to read a review and discover out whatever you should know about that provider. This will be able to help you shape your very own short answer essay and give a wide berth to common short answer mistakes. When you have answered that question, you're ready to go. If a topic was left up to your choice, it's your responsibility to select an appropriate topic which you find exciting. If you select a subject of interest to you, you are going to have a much simpler time writing your essay and you're more inclined to delight in the experience. We provide some winter is very important to write three body paragraphs, a procedure can aid your capacity to craft the reader. Do not become stuck with material possessions and what you've achieved in life. Here are a few suggestions for tactics to use this resource effectively. The important style of an essay needs to be retained even though the contents are likely to have a good deal of references to statistical data along with graphical charts. Paragraph 4 would be made better by details about just what the practice included. It's very valuable to take writing apart as a way to see just the way that it accomplishes its objectives. Any use of material that is not regarded as common knowledge should have a credible source and be referenced. The sphere of physical therapy is growing, and with my skills in marketing, I aspire to grow the regional Ridgeview services across the planet. Information Technology majors, together with students studying Engineering and Humanities, want to be a portion of the organization's 60,000 employees. The previous scores as awarded by the College Board will be useful in establishing a ballparkobviously a 9 is still likely to be an excellent essay under the 7-point scalebut there could be some modest differences in grades between the 2 scales. Students used Wikipedia for an assortment of factors. To get a good job after graduation, they must learn how to write a good research paper. Business professionals need to be good at writing. Planning is the secret to prevent all that. The Common Application no longer needs a brief answer essay from many applicants, but a lot of colleges continue to include things like the brief answer as a portion of a supplement. Hence in the event you lack in either department, you're lost, causing poor grades and a sad reflection on your general performance due to a few poorly written inconsequential small business essay. Depending on the kind of work you're citing, you might have to include extra details. Anyone who works in journalism will tell you you are able to catch any reader's attention provided that you deliver an outstanding introduction. My job was supposed to work alongside the industry manager to help produce a more healthy marriage between the finance and marketing and advertising departments, thus improving our sales and workplace atmosphere. Bridget's essay is extremely strong, but there continue to be a couple little things that could be made better. Men and women tend to opt for a range of themes of who they are and attempt to describe all of them. He laughed and explained that it turned out to be a great change a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wished to do. They're also personal qualities which will be attractive to a college. You're not being requested to explain how college will allow you to grow, but how Oberlin can help you grow. I am able to say that I'm a responsible and a hard-working student. Also have a look at her review of the ideal AP US History textbooks!
Friday, May 15, 2020
Sir Henry Bessemer, an Englishman, invented the first process for mass-producingÃ steelÃ inexpensively in the 19th century. It was an essential contribution to the development of modern-day skyscrapers. The First System for Manufacturing Steel An American, William Kelly, initially held a patent for a system of air blowing the carbon out of pig iron, a method of steel production known as the pneumatic process. Air was blown through molten pig iron to oxidize and remove unwanted impurities. This was BessemerÃ¢â¬â¢s starting point. When Kelly went bankrupt, Bessemer Ã¢â¬â who had been working on a similar process for making steel Ã¢â¬â bought his patent. Bessemer patented a decarbonization process utilizing a blast of air in 1855. Modern Steel Modern steel is made using technology based on Bessemers process. On the making of the first steel ingot, Bessemer said: I well remember how anxiously I awaited the blowing of the first 7-cwt. charge of pig iron. I had engaged an ironfounders furnace attendant to manage the cupola and the melting of the charge. When his metal was nearly all melted, he came to meÃ and said hurriedly, Where be going to put the metal, maister? I said, I want you to run it by a gutter into that little furnace, pointing to the converter, from which you have just raked out all the fuel, and then I shall blow cold air through it to make it hot. The man looked at me in a way in which surprise and pity for my ignorance seemed curiously blended, andÃ he said, It will soon be all of a lump. Notwithstanding this prediction, the metal was run in, and I awaited with much impatience the result. The first element attacked by the atmospheric oxygen is the silicon, generally present in pig iron to the extent of 1 1/2 to 2 percent; it is the white metallic substance of which flint is the acid silicate. Its combustion furnishes a great deal of heat, but it is very undemonstrative, a few sparks and hot gases only indicating the fact that something is going quietly on. But after an interval of 10 or 12 minutes, when the carbon contained in grey pig iron to the extent of about 3 percent is seized on by the oxygen, a voluminous white flame is produced which rushes out of the openings provided for its escape from the upper chamber, and it brilliantly illuminates the whole space around. This chamber proved a perfect cure for the rush of slags and metal from the upper central opening of the first converter. I watched with some anxiety for the expected cessation of the flame as the carbon gradually burnt out. It took place almost suddenly, and thus indicated the entire decarburisation of the metal. The furnace was then tapped, when out rushed a limpid stream of incandescent malleable iron, almost too brilliant for the eye to rest upon. It was allowed to flow vertically into the parallel undivided ingot mould. Then came the question, would the ingot shrink enough, and the cold iron mould expand enough, to allow the ingot to be pushed out? An interval of eight or 10 minutes was allowed, and then, on the application of hydraulic force to the ram, the ingot rose entirely out of the mould and stood there ready for removal. Bessemer was knighted in 1879 for his contributions to science. The Bessemer Process for mass-producing steel was named after him. Andrew Carnegie greatly advanced the steel industry in America after studying the Bessemer process and the British steel industry in the late 1800s. Robert Mushet is credited with inventing tungsten steel in 1868, and Henry Brearly invented stainless steel in 1916.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
POPULATION AND SAMPLE SELECTION This chapter will present the data gathered about an elementary schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s teacher current perspectives, practices and strategies regarding technology usage within their pedagogy. Pseudonyms will be used for all locations and participants. To distinguish the position of each participant, the will be given a specific number (i.e. Ã¢â¬â Teacher 1, Teacher 2, etc.). First, the school as it exists at the study site will be described. Then, demographics of the site will be presented, followed by demographics of the participants. The chapter will conclude with issues and concerns about the kindergarten teacher comfort levels with technology. Additionally, it will connect whether or not do professional development opportunities change kindergarten teacher attitudes regarding technology, increase knowledge of devices and ensure proper integration practices. Demographics of the Site Nashville is a large metropolitan area that is located in the heart of the state of Tennessee. It is centrally located and connected to many smaller cities, which are areas that are experiencing significant urban growth. Although the population of the city is approximately 644,014, the population of the entire state is approximately 6,549,352. The Volunteer Independent School District or VISD, is a school district that serves the city of Nashville, Tennessee. More than 82,000 students are currently enrolled in the district s 73 elementary schools, 33 middle schools, 25 highShow MoreRelatedResearch Techniques Including Research Design1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction A sample is a set of data drawn from the population, it is considered as a subset. Populations are defined as the set of all items or individuals of interest. Samples are less time consuming than a census, less costly to administer than a census and it is possible to obtain statistical results of a sufficiently high precision based on samples. There are two types of sampling techniques, probability and non-probability sampling. Probability Sampling A probability sampling method isRead MoreCorrelation Between Sampling, Sampling Risk And Nonsampling Risk1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSampling means take one typical part of from the whole population, which is an essential method for corporations to get the result of their new products or policies. When corporations test the sample, they do not actually need the specific data and number. In addition, the total number of comprising the population is usually large, so the corporations usually do not test the whole population for reducing meaningless time and labor cost. Sampling is a good way to trade effectiveness to efficiencyRead MoreBusiness Essay examples995 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthere are a large number of samples. The idea here is that each student in the class will create 20 samples for two populations, using two different sampling procedures, for a total of 80 samples. These samples will be combined into common datasets which will be used in class (and made available to all s tudents in the class. The four sampling contexts will be: 1. Discrete numerical population, sampling without replacement (DNWITHOUT) 2. Discrete numerical population, sampling with replacementRead MoreAnalysis : Post Stratification Sampling1075 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrandom sample method is used to improve the efficiency. It can be used to implement weighting and it improve the precision of a sample estimates. It is a calibration estimation method that is often used to reduce the variance of the estimates. The selected sampled units are classified into groups and the known total number of units in the population is used to estimate the group total for some variable of interest. The group totals are summed to produce an estimate for the whole population. The groupsRead MoreAnalyzing Different Approaches Of Sampling885 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesportion of the population that is being studied to represent the attributes of the entire populations ( Polit Beck, 2014). The different strategies of sampling includes: 1. Probability sampling is typically used in quantitative research studies (Polit Beck, 2014). It involves a specific analytical process that requires the random selection of attributes from a population that is being studied, which establishes that there is an equal likelihood of each attribute in the population(Polit BeckRead MoreTraditional Techniques For Sampling And Estimating Population Characteristics1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessampling and estimating population characteristics require that sample selection is done with a known probability. However, for a hard to reach population this is impossible. There is no list or registry from which to create a sampling frame or if there is a list, a random sampling can yield low number of eligible respondents since itÃ¢â¬â¢s often non-representative of the intended target population.1 In addition, it can be extremely difficult to locate members of this population due to social stigmas particularlyRead MoreEnglish Chinese Dictionary Is What I Use For This Assignment1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessampling: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Record the total number of the vocabulary in the dictionary to be N Ã¢â¬ ¢ Choose sample size n which is the number we use in this survey Ã¢â¬ ¢ Open the dictionary randomly, not first 10 page and not the last 10 page, since those pages in most cases are not typical Ã¢â¬ ¢ Close your eyes and point to a vocabulary , then test yourself whether you know this vocabulary or not Ã¢â¬ ¢ Repeat the pervious step until the desired sample size is reached Ã¢â¬ ¢ Record the number of vocabulary you know k Ã¢â¬ ¢ Estimate the numberRead MoreQuestions On The Survey Questionnaires Essay1469 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages2010); thus it allows for the uncovering of new insights on the phenomena of interest not thought of initially prior to the research. Using this data gathering technique in the proposed study will help understand how CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnically diverse population describes their perceptions, attitudes, approaches and experiences in the use of CAM. Similarly, qualitative in-depth semi-structured interview technique will help unravel the paradox of ageing, multimorbidity and the use of CAM. This qualitativeRead MoreSampling Methods Essay1025 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof research, whilst retaining - as accurately as possible - the characteristics of the whole group. The purpose of taking a sample is to investigate features of the population in greater detail than could be done if the total population was used, and to draw inferences about this population. In addition, at the practical level, a sample is likely to be both cheaper and quicker to investigate. All sampling will involve error and sociologists have developed samplingRead MoreAdvantages Of Simple Sampling And Accuracy Of Representation801 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDisadvantages of simple sampling: a. It is expensive and time consuming. b. Sample selection bias may occur (Horton, 2015). Systematic random sampling: can be described as a most commonly used method in which after a number has been allocated to an individual in the population frame, the first person is selected using a random number table or out of a hat and subsequently those who take part in it are selected or picked using a fixed sample interval (Mathers, Sampling for surveys, 2009, p. 11). Advantages
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Lovely Peoples Do Stupid Things Essay, Research Paper Lovely Peoples Do Stupid Thingss How is love to act upon our lives? Love-struck people do brainsick things to show how they care for that peculiar individual yet it is a long and blowy route to these actions. It is down this way that experience spawns and problem and felicity are felt. Janie Crawford of Zora Neale Hurston? s Their Eyess Were Watching God, shows the route through the stairss of her three relationships. These relationships, though non carry throughing 1s, conclude in breaking Janie? s hunt and apprehension of life. Johnny Taylor, Janie? s foremost kiss and gatekeeper to her hereafter, When Janie was 16, she embarked on a sexual waking up. Johnny Taylor was a hapless immature adult male who lived in the Florida country. Janie allowed him to snog her over the fencing. Unfortunately, Nanny saw everything. With Nanny? s awful background of iniquitous workss done to her, she wanted the best for Janie. We will write a custom essay sample on Lovely People Do Stupid Things Essay Research or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As she saw the buss, the doors of life opened for Janie and Nanny wasn? T traveling to hold her do the same errors that she had. Yet, Nanny had been impregnated under the fortunes of being a slave and this was non the instance for Janie. Nanny stated that? black adult females were the mules of the universe? , but she didn # 8217 ; t want Janie to be a mule. She wanted to see Janie in a unafraid state of affairs before she died, and Logan Killicks could supply that. Janie did non desire to get married Logan, but she did so because Nanny told her? that she would finally come to love him. ? Ironically, Logan wanted to coerce Janie into the servitude that Nanny feared. Besides, he was disappointed that Janie neer returned his fondness and attractive force. If he could non possess her through love, he would possess her by demanding her entry. At bosom, his actions arose from the fright that Janie would go forth him. Two months after her matrimony to Logan, Janie visited Nanny to inquire when she would get down loving him. Nanny berated Janie for non appreciating Logan # 8217 ; s wealth. Although Logan pampered Janie for a twelvemonth, he began kicking that she was spoiled. That dark, Logan criticized Janie for being spoiled and lazy. Janie voiced his deepest frights when she suggested that she might go forth him. Logan reminded her of her household # 8217 ; s repute, trusting to ache her feelings. Turning to these drastic of steps blew Janie into a craze and she left with a smooth-talking gentleman that really following twenty-four hours. Janie chose to go forth Logan for Jody because he revived her dreams of love in matrimony. Her first marr iage had taught her that matrimony and love do non travel manus in manus. However, she still believed that love was the best motive for matrimony. Jody promised that he would neer turn Janie into a common battalion mule. He promised her that she would harvest all the benefits of his work. His words spookily echo NannyÃ¢â¬â¢s dream of reputability and fiscal security for Janie. However, Janie didnÃ¢â¬â¢t marry Jody because of these promises. She married him because he inspired the feelings she had experienced while sitting under the flowering Prunus persica tree when she was 16 and the minute her muliebrity became crystal clear. Ironically, Janie # 8217 ; s matrimony to Jody was the really incarnation of Nanny # 8217 ; s dreams for her. Unlike Logan, he did non do her a battalion mule. He gave her fiscal security and reputability. However, the matrimony was mostly an unhappy brotherhood. Janie could non be herself around Jody. Furthermore, Jody still used Janie as a refuse even though he gave her wealth and reputability. So it seems that Nanny # 8217 ; s worst frights and her highest hopes were realized in Janie # 8217 ; s 2nd matrimony. It was until one afternoon in the shop that she met a lofty yet fine-looking immature adult male who went, queerly plenty, by the name of Tea Cake. Tea Cake # 8217 ; s wooing was different from that of Logan and Jody. Janie # 8217 ; s first matrimony was more of a contract of sale between Nanny and Logan than anything else. Janie # 8217 ; s 2nd matrimony was an flight from the first 1. Furthermore, it was based on defeated dreams. Jody courted her by speaking about himself and his dreams. Tea Cake, on the other manus, pursued Janie with a more romantic genius. Besides, he allowed her equal terms in negociating the footings of their relationship. Deriving personal freedom was a double procedure. First, she had to be free in her private life, but she besides had to liberate herself from curtailing societal attitudes. Merely so could she get down to mend the rift between her outside ego and her inside ego. She feels that what she has learned from her relationship with Tea Cake can non be conveyed through words. Self-fulfillment is a personal journey that can merely be made through gaining life experience. Therefore, Janie acknowledges the flaws inherent in reciting her life, but she does non needfully undersell the importance of holding found her voice. Neither does she undersell the benefit of sharing her narrative with others. She doesn # 8217 ; t believe that her narrative should be the individual, important guidebook to self-fulfillment. It can, nevertheless, inspire others to re-examine their lives.
Tuesday, April 14, 2020
Marketing of Projects Essay The first and one of the critical steps in the project cycle management is the identification and selection process.This is an important stage such that it can affect the whole process including that of sustainability of the project after completion and transferring to operational phase. However, this stage is overlooked in some cases particularly in the process of capturing the actual needs of the beneficiaries. Instead of demand driven approach some donors including international organizations would like to follow supply driven approach. In the actual practice projects should be identified from the perspective of the needs or demand of the beneficiaries whether at community or national levels.Countries need to craft their strategic plans and programs from the point of view of the interest of their people. Donors both bilateral and multilateral including international organizations and non-governmental organizations need to direct their assistance based on the programs of the countr ies which are reflecting the actual needs of their citizens. In other words the assistance of donors should be synchronized with that of the needs of the countries that are clearly shown in the strategic plans of the latter.However, what we see in practice is not similar to that of what has been said. Particularly donations from international organizations tend to focus on the interest of the donors instead of that of the recipients. Many NGOs in developing countries of Africa, for instance, design their own program based on the aim or intention of the resources from donors rather than the needs of the society at large or the community in particular. It does not mean that recipients of funds from donors should not take into account the focus of donation funds.As the recipients have enormous needs to be addressed, then it is imperative to align and match their projects towards the interest of the donors as well. In the world where we have so many poor nations that need to be helped a nd few nations that can help then this is some kind of competition for scanty resources, i. e. funds from donors. Thus there is a need to win the competition by a given nation through adopting a smart strategy. This, among other things, require the strategy of keeping the balance between the donorsÃ¢â¬â¢ intention of funding and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s policy or goals to meet the interest of the society.One of the main reasons for the failure of projects either at early stage of the implementation or not being sustainable after getting into operation stages is low attention given at the project identification and selection stage. I believe that the smart strategy of maintaining the balance between the recipient countries interest and donors fund focus area is not seriously considered during project identification and planning. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to understand the concepts of Project and Project Cycle Management (PCM) and to critically examine one of the phases of PCM, which is Project Identification.An attempt will be made to identify inherent problems that are commonly overlooked at this stage of project cycle management and to come out with recommendations as part of solutions to the problems. 2. Understanding of Project and Project Cycle Management (PCM) 2. 1 What is project? According to Nicholas, John M. (2001) some of the characteristics that warrant classifying an activity as a project centers on the purpose, complexity, uniqueness, unfamiliarity, stake, impermanence, and life cycle of the activity.Based on these features then project is defined as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ A project involves a single, definable purpose, end-item, or results, usually specified in terms of costs, schedule, and performance requirements. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Every project is unique, in that it requires doing something different than was done previously. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Projects are temporary activities. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Projects cuts across organizational lines because they need the skills a nd talents from multiple professionals and organizations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Projects involve unfamiliarityÃ¢â¬ ¦. posses significant elements of uncertainty and risk. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The organization has something at stake when doing a project. Finally, a project is the process of working to achieve a goal; during the process, projects pass through several distinct phases, called the project life cycle. Westland, Jason (2006): A project is a unique endeavour to produce a set of deliverables within clearly specified time, cost and quality constraints. Projects are different from standard business operational activities as they: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Are unique in nature. They do not involve repetitive processes. Every project undertaken is different from the last, whereas operational activities often involve undertaking repetitive (identical) processes. Have a defined timescale. Projects have a clearly specified start and end date within which the deliverables must be produced to meet a specified customer requirem ent. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Have an approved budget. Projects are allocated a level of financial expenditure within which the deliverables are produced, to meet a specified customer requirement. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Have limited resources. At the start of a project an agreed amount of labour, equipment and materials is allocated to the project. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Involve an element of risk. Projects entail a level of uncertainty and therefore carry business risk. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Achieve beneficial change.The purpose of a project is typically to improve an organization through the implementation of business change. GTZ (1996): A project can be described as a process of providing inputs over a limited period: using the resources provided, activities are conducted and outputs (results) generated, in order to achieve a previously defined impact (the project purpose). We talk of programmes when more than one project in a sector, sub-sector or region are linked together by a clearly defined concept. Projects and programmes are sustain able if the impact continues to have effect.RPRLGSP, May 2009: Project is defined as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Work that is temporary and produces a unique product or service Ã¢â¬ ¢ An intervention to conduct activities, in order to provide assistance, that will allow the Ã¢â¬ËusersÃ¢â¬â¢ to improve their own situationÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ An undertaking for the purpose of achieving established objectives, within a given Ã¢â¬ ¢ budget and time periodÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ An investment of resources to produce goods or services 2. 2 What is project management? Westland, Jason (2006): Project Management is the skills, tools and management processes required to undertake a project successfully.It incorporates: [pic] Figure 1: Project management components [pic]A set of skills. Specialist knowledge, skills and experience are required to reduce the level of risk within a project and thereby enhance its likelihood of success. [pic] A suite of tools. Various types of tools are used by pr oject managers to improve their chances of success. Examples include document templates, registers, planning software, modelling software, audit checklists and review forms. [pic] A series of processes. Various processes and techniques are required to monitor and control time, cost, quality and scope on projects.Examples include time management, cost management, quality management, change management, risk management and issue management. RPRLGSP, May 2009: PMBOK 2008, defines project management as Ã¢â¬Ëthe application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities, to meet specific scope, time, cost and quality goals of projectsÃ¢â¬â¢. John M. Nicholas (2001): Project management is a system/ contingency approach to organization and management; it applies elements of classical and behavioral management and uses organizational forms and management roles best suited to the unique environment of projects. 2. 3 What is Project Cycle Management?In general we can defi ne Project Cycle Management as a tool that describes the management activities and decision making procedures used during the life-cycle of a project. The following sections show the definition given to PCM in different documents. Lucian CIOLAN Ã¢â¬âTrainer- EU Project Cycle Management: The project cycle follows the life of a project, from the initial idea through its completion. It provides a structure to ensure that stakeholders are consulted, and defines the key decision, information requirements and responsibilities at each phase so that informed decision can be made at each phase in the life of the project.RPRLGSP, May 2009: The systematic process of initiating, planning, implementing, managing and evaluating projects or programmes is known as Ã¢â¬ËProject Cycle ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢, PCM ; it is also defined as an approach in project management used to guide management activities and decision-making procedures during the life-cycle of a project, from the first idea until the last ex-post (afterwards) evaluation. European Commission (March,2002): Project Cycle Management defines different phases in the project life with well-defined management activities and decision making procedures.PCM provides a structure to ensure that stakeholders are consulted and relevant information is available, so that informed decisions can be made at key stages in the life of a project. European Commission (May 1999): The way in which projects are planned and carried out follows a sequence that has become known as the project cycle. The cycle starts with the identification of an idea and develops that idea into a working plan that can be implemented and evaluated.Project Cycle Management integrates the phases in the project cycle so that issues are examined systematically, by means of an approach and methodology which ensures that objectives and issues of sustainability remains in focus. 2. 3What are the phases of the project cycle? Westland, Jason (2006): The project life cycle consists of four phases: Project initiation: During this phase a business problem or opportunity is identified and a business case providing various solution options is defined. Next, a feasibility study is conducted to investigate whether each option addresses the business problem and a final recommended solution is hen put forward. Project planning: This phase involves outlining the activities, tasks, dependencies and timeframes; resource plan; financial plan; quality plan; acceptance plan; and procurement plan. Project execution: This phase involves implementing the plans created during the project planning phase. Project closure: Project closure involves releasing the final deliverables to the customer, handing over project documentation to the business, terminating supplier contracts, releasing project resources and communicating the closure of the project to all stakeholders. [pic]Figure 2: The four phases of the project life cycle GTZ (1996): Categorize Project Cycle in to three phases: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identification phase-asses outset situation, establish system of objectives Ã¢â¬ ¢ Concept phase-establish project concept, prepare decisions to implement the project Ã¢â¬ ¢ Implementation phase- operationalize planning, implement, adjust and update planning, and terminate project RPRLGSP, May 2009: Typically, the project cycle comprises 6 or more standard project stages, phases or activities, arranged in a logical sequence to accomplish a projectÃ¢â¬â¢s goals or objectives.Stage 1: Policy setting Stage 2: Project Identification Stage 3: Appraisal Stage 4: Formulation/planning Stage 5: Contracting/ commitment Stage 6: Implementation, monitoring midterm evaluation Stage 7: Final evaluation Lucian CIOLAN(27-29 of September, 2007): The generic project cycle within EC external aid programmes has six phases. [pic] PROGRAMMING: What are the partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s development priorities and what is the ECÃ¢â¬â¢s focus for assistance?During the Programming phase, t he situation at national and sectoral level is analyzed to identify problems, constraints and opportunities which co-operation could address. This involves a review of socio-economic indicators, and of national and donor priorities. The purpose is to identify the main objectives and sectoral priorities for co-operation, and thus to provide a relevant and feasible programming frame-work within which projects can be identified and prepared. IDENTIFICATION: Is the project concept relevant to priority local needs and consistent with EC policy priorities?The purpose of the identification stage is to: Ã¢â¬ ¢ identify project ideas that are consistent with partner and EC development priorities; Ã¢â¬ ¢ assess the relevance and likely feasibility of these project ideas; Ã¢â¬ ¢ under the Ã¢â¬ËProgramme approachÃ¢â¬â¢, prepare a Financing Proposal, or an Identification Fiche for individual projects; and Ã¢â¬ ¢ prepare a financing decision for a Programme of projects, or determine the s cope of further work required during the formulation stage for individual projectsFORMULATION Is the project feasible and will it deliver sustainable benefits? The purpose of the Formulation stage is to: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Confirm the relevance and feasibility of the project idea as proposed in the Identification Fiche or Project Fiche; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Prepare a detailed project design, including the management and coordination arrangements, financing plan, cost-benefit analysis, risk management, monitoring, evaluation and audit arrangements; and Ã¢â¬ ¢ Prepare a Financing Proposal (for individual projects) and a financing decision.IMPLEMENTATION, INCLUDING MONITORING AND REPORTING: Are results being achieved and resources efficiently and effectively used? What corrective action should be taken? The purpose of the implementation stage is to: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Deliver the results, achieve the purpose(s) and contribute effectively to the overall objective of the project; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Manage the available resources ef ficiently; and Ã¢â¬ ¢ Monitor and report on progress. EVALUATION :Were planned benefits achieved, will they be sustainable, and what lessons have been learned? The purpose of evaluation is to:Make an assessment, as systematic and objective as possible, of an ongoing or completed project, programme or policy, its design, implementation and results. AUDIT: Has there been compliance with applicable laws and rules? Are efficiency, economy and effectiveness criteria being met? The purpose of an audit is to: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assess an activity/subject that is the responsibility of another party against identified suitable criteria; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Express a conclusion (i. e. opinion) that provides the intended user with a level of assurance about the activity/subject being audited.According to the European Commission Manual (March 2002) the six phases of the project including the major documents to be produced and decisions to be made under each phase are summarized in the following table: |Project Cycle |Major Documents |Decision | |Programming |Country Strategy Paper |Priority areas; Sectors; timetable | |Identification |Pre-feasibility study; Project |Which options to study further | | |Identification Sheet; | | |Appraisal |Feasibility study; Draft financing |Whether to draw up major financing proposal| | |proposal | | |Financing |Financing proposal; Financing agreement |To fund | |Implementation |Progress and monitoring reports |To continue as planned or to re-orient | | | |project (mid-term evaluation); about the | | | |need for extension | |Evaluation |Evaluation study |How to use results in future programming | It is possible to summarize the phases of the PCM discussed by different authors as shown in the following format. |Westland, Jason | | | | | | |(2006) | |RPRLGSP, May 2009() |EC (March 2002) |Lucian CIOLAN (2007) | |Stages | |GTZ (1996) | | | | |1 |Project |Identification phase |Policy setting |Programming |Programming | | |initiation | | | | | |2 |Project planning | Concept phase |Project Identification |Identification |Identification | |3 |Project execution|Implementation phase |Appraisal |Appraisal |Formulation | |4 |Project closure | |Formulation/planning |Financing |Implementation | |5 | | |Contracting/ commitment |Implementation |Evaluation | |6 | | |Implementation, monitoring |Evaluation |Audit | | | | |midterm evaluation | | | |7 | | |Final evaluation | | | Furthermore these stages of project cycle presented by different authors can be summarized in three phases.These are Preparation, Implementation and Project Closure Evaluation. 3. Analysis: Project Identification Selection According to Westland, Jason (2006) the project identification and selection of the project cycle is slotted in the Project Initiation Phase. Within the initiation phase, the business problem or opportunity is identified, a solution is defined, a project is formed and a project team is appointed to build and deliver the solution to the customer. Figure 3: shows t he activities undertaken during the initiation phase: [pic] Figure 3: Project initiation activities Develop a business case: The trigger to initiating a project is identifying a business problem or opportunity to be addressed.A business case is created to define the problem or opportunity in detail and identify a preferred solution for implementation. The business case includes: [pic] A detailed description of the problem or opportunity; [pic] A list of the alternative solutions available; [pic] An analysis of the business benefits, costs, risks and issues; [pic] A description of the preferred solution; [pic] A summarized plan for implementation The business case is then approved by an identified project sponsor, and the required funding is allocated to proceed with a feasibility study. Undertake a feasibility study: At any stage during or after the creation of a business case, a formal feasibility study may be commissioned.The purpose of a feasibility study is to assess the likelih ood of each alternative solution option achieving the benefits outlined in the business case. The feasibility study will also investigate whether the forecast costs are reasonable, the solution is achievable, the risks are acceptable and the identified issues are avoidable. Establish the terms of reference: After the business case and feasibility study have been approved, a new project is formed. At this point, terms of reference are created. The terms of reference define the vision, objectives, scope and deliverables for the new project. They also describe the organization structure, activities, resources and funding required to undertake the project. Any risks, issues, planning assumptions and constraints are also identified.Appoint the project team: The project team is now ready to be appointed. Although a project manager may be appointed at any stage during the life of the project, the manager will ideally be appointed prior to recruiting the project team. The project manager cr eates a detailed job description for each role in the project team, and recruits people into each role based on their relevant skills and experience. Set up a project office: The project office is the physical environment within which the team is based. Although it is usual to have one central project office, it is possible to have a virtual project office with project team members located around the world.A project office environment should include: [pic] Equipment, such as office furniture, computer equipment, stationery and materials; [pic] Communications infrastructure, such as telephones, computer network, e-mail, Internet access, file storage, database storage and backup facilities; [pic] Documentation, such as a project methodology, standards, processes, forms and registers; [pic] Tools, such as accounting, project planning and risk modeling software. Perform a phase review: At the end of the initiation phase, a phase review is performed. This is basically a checkpoint to ens ure that the project has achieved its objectives as planned.RPRLGSP (May 2009): Policy Setting precede the project identification stage. Policy Setting is the establishment of the development vision guiding the Local Authority and it includes the strategic planning process whereby the long term direction of the Local Authority is established. Accordingly Project Identification is the stage 2 of the project cycle is Project identification or initiation, where Local Authorities identify projects from an assessment of existing demand for goods or services based on 3 main sources, Ã¢â¬ ¢ The CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategic Plan/IDP Ã¢â¬ ¢ The annual LASDAP consultations where citizens articulate their needs Ã¢â¬ ¢ Baseline surveys and diagnostic studies to meet special needsThe main practice in Local Authorities however, is to follow their primary mandates in the choice of projects, with additional Ã¢â¬ËdemandÃ¢â¬â¢ projects from LASDAP priorities. This planning is often called Ã¢â¬Ë demand led planningÃ¢â¬â¢ and is often disjointed from the more proactive policy and strategic planning process that has been described in stage 1. The problem with this demand approach is that project feasibility and sustainability is affected because the demands led planning comes with vested interests not matched with an objective appraisal of projects. As a result, LAs invest in a fragmented portfolio of projects that are neither linked to the national plans nor to their own strategic plans.It is important therefore, that at the project identification/initiation stage, LAs choose projects from many alternative ideas or schemes that balance between local demands, strategic priorities, ongoing diagnostics, and research or baseline studies. To determine Ã¢â¬ËdemandÃ¢â¬â¢ projects from communities or stakeholders, 2 key elements are involved; (i) needs analysis and (ii) situation analysis. i) Needs Analysis: Analysing the present actual situation can be Ã¢â¬Ëproblem basedÃ¢ â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëopportunity basedÃ¢â¬â¢. It concerns identifying the priority problems/ opportunities and their main causes, and identifying the causes that can be addressed by the project intervention.It is essential to understand the resources within the community or from others, that are relevant to tackling the problems. It is important therefore that all many citizens and stakeholder groups get the chance to express the problems they experience and recommend solutions. Discussions, opinions and clarifications by the problem Ã¢â¬ËownersÃ¢â¬â¢ should be respected. The Manual on Community Participation has elaborate guidelines on how to conduct participatory needs assessment situation analysis. This ensures that Ã¢â¬ËownershipÃ¢â¬â¢ which is part of the project pre-feasibility is established from peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and requirements. ii) Situation Analysis: Situation analysis concerns identifying the priority problems/ opportunities and their main causes.This is an i mportant factor because peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s desires and assessment of their needs, may be based on Ã¢â¬ËsymptomsÃ¢â¬â¢ of an underlying or situational factor; addressing the symptoms will not solve the problems because the cause and effect have not been properly analysed. A properly planned intervention should therefore combine both needs analysis and situational analysis, based upon a correct and complete analysis of the existing situation. This involves analysing the present actual situation through various methods (transect walk, social mapping, gender analysis etc). The method chosen, can be Ã¢â¬Ëproblem basedÃ¢â¬â¢ e. g. what are the prevalent problem situations or Ã¢â¬Ëopportunity basedÃ¢â¬â¢, e. g. is there an opportunity to serve people with disability?After discussion and clarification by the Ã¢â¬Ëproblem ownerÃ¢â¬â¢ or people affected by the problem, all opinions should be respected. The aim is to create a picture of reality. The existing situation should be in terpreted according to the views, needs, interests and activities of parties concerned. It is essential that all those involved accept the plans and are committed to implement them. A greater involvement of the beneficiaries and stakeholders in defining local problems, identifying solutions and implementing them ensures that the resulting programmes are more effective and sustainable. Participatory methods aim to create ownership and commitment among the involved parties.Once the projects are identified from needs situational assessments, the LA should consider the priority projects to be undertaken, and to do this, they must subject those needs/priorities to further review. This introduces the 3rd stage of the project cycle, project appraisal stage. VLIR (July 2002): Within the VLIR programme framework, problems, needs and interests of possible stakeholders are analysed and ideas for projects and other actions are identified and formulated in broad terms. This involves a study of the project context to obtain an idea of the relevance, the feasibility and sustainability of the proposal. A comparison of this information with the funding criteria will allow an assessment of the funding chances. The EU Project Cycle Management model takes PROGRAMMING as an initial phase of the process.In the training manual prepared by Lucian CIOLAN (2007) it is indicated that during the Programming phase, the situation at national and sectoral level is analyzed to identify problems, constraints and opportunities which co-operation could address. This involves a review of socio-economic indicators, and of national and donor priorities. The purpose is to identify the main objectives and sectoral priorities for co-operation, and thus to provide a relevant and feasible programming frame-work within which projects can be identified and prepared. According to EC manual the main question asked at project identification phase is: Ã¢â¬Å"Is the project concept relevant to priority local needs and consistent with EC policy priorities? The manual further describes the purpose of the identification stage as: Ã¢â¬ ¢ identify project ideas that are consistent with partner and EC development priorities; Ã¢â¬ ¢ assess the relevance and likely feasibility of these project ideas; Ã¢â¬ ¢ under the Ã¢â¬ËProgramme approachÃ¢â¬â¢, prepare a Financing Proposal or an Identification Fiche for individual projects, and Ã¢â¬ ¢ prepare a financing decision for a Programme of projects, or determine the scope of further work required during the formulation stage for individual projects. NB: Each project Ã¢â¬Ëgeneral objectiveÃ¢â¬â¢ should be derived from an appropriate objective statement in the Country Strategy Paper and National Indicative Planning or from a relevant sector policy or programme objective.During the identification phase the key assessments required to help ensure the relevance and feasibility of a project idea are: (i) assessment of policy and programming f ramework; (ii) stakeholder analysis, including institutional capacity assessment; (iii) problem analysis, including scoping of crosscutting issues (e. g. gender, governance, environment); (iv) assessment of other ongoing and planned initiatives, and assessment of lessons learned; (v) preliminary objectives and strategy analysis; (vi) preliminary assessment of resource and cost parameters; (vii) preliminary assessment of project management, coordination and financing arrangements; and (viii) preliminary assessment of economic/financial, environmental, technical and social sustainability issues.The key documents required by the EC at the identification stage of the cycle are therefore: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Terms of reference for any EC funded prefeasibility studies; Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Identification Fiche, including as appropriate draft terms of reference for a feasibility/design study; or Ã¢â¬ ¢ A Financing Proposal for a programme/package of projects (e. g Action Programme together with Project Fiches ). EC Manual (March 2002):During the Programming phase, the situation at national and sectoral level is analyzed to identify problems, constraints and opportunities which co-operation could address. This involves a review of socio-economic indicators, and of national and donor priorities.The purpose is to identify the main objectives and sectoral priorities for co-operation, and thus to provide a relevant and feasible programming frame-work within which projects can be identified and prepared. For each of these priori-ties, strategies that take account of the lessons of past experience will be formulated. During the Identification phase, and within the framework established by the Country Strategy Paper, the stress is on analysis of relevance of project ideas, which includes an analysis of the stakeholders and of the likely target groups and beneficiaries (who they are: women and men from different socio-economic groups; assessment of their potentials, etc. and of the situation, inc luding an analysis of the problems they face, and the identification of options to address these problems. Sectoral, thematic or Ã¢â¬Å"pre-feasibilityÃ¢â¬ studies may be carried out (including consultations with stakeholders) to help identify, select or investigate specific ideas, and to define what further studies may be needed to formulate a project or action. The outcome is a decision on whether or not the option(s) developed should be further studied in detail. Overall responsibility for Identification is with EuropeAid who initiates missions, studies and related preparatory work (including consultations with others donors and potential co-financing) in order to define the activities (projects, programmes, sectoral support, etc. ) to be financed.A priority list is established indicating which projects should be appraised immediately for a rapid start of implementation, in the following year and so on. 4. Case Studies: Case Study 1: Project Identification Based Countries Stra tegy: African Development Bank Group (August 2008): Project linkages with country strategy and objectives The Tanzania mainlandÃ¢â¬â¢s National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty, known by its Kiswahili acronym, Ã¢â¬ËMKUKUTAÃ¢â¬â¢ covers the period 2005-2010. It identifies three clusters of broad outcomes: i) economic growth and poverty reduction; ii) improvement of the quality of live and social wellbeing; and iii) governance and accountability.Goal 3 of Cluster (ii) addresses increased access to clean, affordable and safe water, sanitation, decent shelter and a safe and sustainable environment. ZanzibarÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (MKUZA) has been developed as a response to similar development needs. Zanzibar Development Vision 2020 provides the over-arching framework to reduce poverty. The Zanzibar Poverty Reduction Plan (ZPRP 2007-2010), Cluster 2, Social Services and Well Being, includes amongst others goals for i) increased access to c lean, safe and affordable water and ii) improved sanitation and sustainable environment. The Joint Assistance Strategy for Tanzania (JAST) is a compact between Government and Development Partners (DPs) for managing development co-operation.It came into force in 2006. The efforts to harmonise aid management systems on the mainland with those on Zanzibar are at an advanced stage. Case Study 2: Project Identification Based on the Local Problems: UNDP (2006): Lare (a community in Kenya-Africa) is a dry area with no permanent rivers. It receives an average of 700 millimeters of rainfall a year but this varies widely from one year to another. It is also unevenly distributed among the seasons. Farmers in Lare have identifies four major constraints to agricultural production, with scarcity of water as a major one. Before 1998, about 70 percent of all households in the area experienced shortages of water.In addition, not only was there insufficient water, but it was also of poor quality and caused a high incidence of water born diseases. In 1999, a project involving nine collaborating institutions was initiated to address rainwater harvesting practices and water treatment along with other technologies required by the farmers. The two case studies discussed above represent different factors for project identification. In case of Case 1 project consideration was given to the linkage of the project to the overall country strategy. This is taken as the main justification for the identification of a given project as a priority need of the country. In Case 2 project the local situation of the community was taken as the means for the project identification.Depending on the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy alone sometimes may lead to wrong conclusion. The country strategy may be outdated such that may lack to capture the changes that have occurred since the time of its formulation. The reality on the ground particularly the conditions in the target community may not warrant the feasi bility of the project and can lead to the failure of implementation. On the other hand many NGOs in developing country are focusing on target community needs in the identification of projects without recognition of the country strategy. This again can lead to the question of sustainability of the implemented projects due to lack of acceptance of the endeavors by the local and national governments.Therefore, the identification stage of PCM needs to
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Rise of the Roman Empire The legend about RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s origins puts the founding of the city at around 735 B.C. It is said that a Vestal Virgin gave birth to twin boys, Romulus and Remus, and claimed that they were the sons of the god Mars. The Vestal Virgin was the sister of a king. The king believed that she was lying and imprisoned her. He put her two boys in a basket and threw it into the Tiber River. A she-wolf found the twins and raised them. The twins, Romulus and Remus, came back and killed the king and founded the city of Rome. Afterwards Romulus and Remus fought and Remus was killed. Romulus was RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s first king and after he died, he became a god and vanished. The Romans were tribal people who lived in central Italy and like other Latins; they tilled small plots of land pastured cows, pigs and goats and tended flocks of sheep. Moreover, they had a council of elders who chose the Chiefs of the tribes. Around 600 B.C the Etruscans a much more advanced people from the north conquered Rome. Consequently, from that time on, Rome was ruled by kings. The Romans learned many crafts from the Etruscans such as the use of bronze. They borrowed the Etruscan twelve-month calendar, the use of first and last names and developed their alphabet from an Etruscan adaptation of Greek. The Romans adapted many agricultural practices such as the growing of grapes and olives. From the Etruscans the Romans learned military strategy including the use of the unit called the legion which fought in phalanx positions. In 509 B.C however, the Roman nobles revolted against their king, Tarquin the Proud, and established a republic. By this time, RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s society was already divided into two groups, the common people called the Plebeians, and the nobles called the Patricians. The Patricians were the heads of the leading families of Rome. Instead of the king, they elected two consuls. The consuls ruled the state and led the armies, but they h... Free Essays on Rise Of The Roman Empire Free Essays on Rise Of The Roman Empire Rise of the Roman Empire The legend about RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s origins puts the founding of the city at around 735 B.C. It is said that a Vestal Virgin gave birth to twin boys, Romulus and Remus, and claimed that they were the sons of the god Mars. The Vestal Virgin was the sister of a king. The king believed that she was lying and imprisoned her. He put her two boys in a basket and threw it into the Tiber River. A she-wolf found the twins and raised them. The twins, Romulus and Remus, came back and killed the king and founded the city of Rome. Afterwards Romulus and Remus fought and Remus was killed. Romulus was RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s first king and after he died, he became a god and vanished. The Romans were tribal people who lived in central Italy and like other Latins; they tilled small plots of land pastured cows, pigs and goats and tended flocks of sheep. Moreover, they had a council of elders who chose the Chiefs of the tribes. Around 600 B.C the Etruscans a much more advanced people from the north conquered Rome. Consequently, from that time on, Rome was ruled by kings. The Romans learned many crafts from the Etruscans such as the use of bronze. They borrowed the Etruscan twelve-month calendar, the use of first and last names and developed their alphabet from an Etruscan adaptation of Greek. The Romans adapted many agricultural practices such as the growing of grapes and olives. From the Etruscans the Romans learned military strategy including the use of the unit called the legion which fought in phalanx positions. In 509 B.C however, the Roman nobles revolted against their king, Tarquin the Proud, and established a republic. By this time, RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s society was already divided into two groups, the common people called the Plebeians, and the nobles called the Patricians. The Patricians were the heads of the leading families of Rome. Instead of the king, they elected two consuls. The consuls ruled the state and led the armies, but they h...
Monday, February 24, 2020
Olympia Machine Company - Case Study Example However, there are weaknesses in the current compensation plan. Regardless of the large volume of sales, there are high fixed selling expenses and also common measures that determine salary increases of the salespeople have not been established by the management. Some of the key issues that any new compensation plan must address include how to poise a balance between capital equipment and sales. A salesperson must be able to not just take any order that comes along but sell. Secondly, a weighted plan that allows a salesperson to assess what pays off and what does not should be addressed, in order for him or her to be more resourceful. Finally, there has to be a common standard where salary increases for all like employees should be known. This is of importance since the management is able to weigh how prolific a salesperson is. In the point system, together with a salary, a salesperson is given bonus points in relation to his or her performance in the sales activities. However, with this system, detailed reports about the performances of the salespeople are required thus increasing the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s overhead cost. In this plan, a salary, expenses and a commission on sales were taken into consideration. This way, the salespeople had security because they were assured of a salary and were still motivated due to the commission rates incurred on several products. However, this would mean that the commission plan with specifications would result to a cut in current salary base for most salespeople. The bonus plan involved giving the salespeople an opening to earn bonuses from their sales, without putting a boundary past a target. They also received the same salary as before. However, upholding a liable sales-expense-to-sales ratio would go against the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy of upholding such. I would therefore recommend the